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Please consider removing references to unnecessary or disreputable sources , merging citations where possible, or, if necessary, flagging the content for deletion. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Next Generation Combat Vehicle. Main article: Future Vertical Lift.

Burris, Jr. Freedberg Jr. This article may contain an excessive number of citations. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Army Futures Command”. Retrieved 3 December Austin-American Statesman. Retrieved 18 March Wins Fountain, U. David G. Perkins , U. US Army Reserve. Retrieved 12 February Retrieved 25 December Grinston , James C. Army in Multi-Domain Operations “describes how US Army forces, as part of the Joint Force, will militarily compete, penetrate, dis-integrate, and exploit our adversaries in the future.

Army Modernization Strategy”. APG News. Retrieved 15 December James C. Army 15 January Proposed Army Futures Command Process Tenets ‘Scientific research is a fundamentally different activity than technology development’; Incorporate ‘scientific research into “Appendix C: Functional Concepts” and specify pathways for technology development’; Buy into the ‘fail fast’ mentality; ‘6.

No new requirements once an increment is started. Breaking Defense. Sydney J. Prometheus, which is AI software, combs through the data for potential threats and targets. SHOT, which is also software, tracks each target on a custody list, correlating each target’s current location, signature, and threat assessment, with a list of candidate fires countermeasures, ranked by capability, range to the target, kill radius, etc. Human commanders choose whether to fire, or not, from the list of fires assets Nelson notes that ERCA and Grey Eagle drones are to be added to the list of fires assets—currently M howitzers and MLRS rocket launchers in the upcoming tests, August Eric J.

Wesley, U. See 3 August China tests hypersonic aircraft Starry Sky-2 –Xingkong-2 Starry-sky-2 first flight China successfully tests first hypersonic aircraft that can.. Rand Corporation 28 September Hypersonic Missile Nonproliferation estimates there is less than a decade to prevent Hypersonic Missile proliferation.

Navy and U. Army jointly executed the launch of a common hypersonic glide body C-HGB , which flew at hypersonic speed to a designated impact point” DoD 20 March Department of Defense tests hypersonic glide body “The C-HGB — when fully fielded — will comprise the weapon’s conventional warhead, guidance system, cabling, and thermal protection shield.

Dolan, Richard K. Use Large aperture sensors. Use Space-based missile sensors. Plan out the detection, control and engagement; the sensors, the command-and-control, the fire control, and the weapons the kill vehicles. David McKiernan”. Retrieved 14 December Army Pacific Commander Gen.

Army AI Task Force. What Does That Mean? The Army conducts a network demonstration at Fort Bliss, Texas. The Army is pursuing network modernization through Cross-Functional Teams.

Army to host tactical Cloud computing industry forum army. McConville Bradley fighting vehicle replacement is still a project Sydney J. Army Public Affairs 7 February Army aggressively moves forward on OMFV, seeks industry input on path forward “We are not releasing a prescribed set of requirements — we are describing the problem set and giving industry the freedom to be creative and innovative in their approach” —Gen.

John Mike Murray Sydney J. Craig A. Hames, U. Cedric T. Charles K. Google My Maps. Army Futures Command location, says Army”. Retrieved 17 July Defense News. Combined Arms training center. Maria R. Hames and Margaret C. Roth 14 January Virtual battlefield represents future of training Training as a service; more content at scale needed. Murray, Sec. McCarthy, Dr. What’s behind the request? Top 6 modernization prorities are unscathed. Randy S.

Benjamin T. Freedberg, Jr. John M. Army Futures Command. Retrieved 9 February Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 8 February Murray TRAC needs to produce its reports in 3 months or faster.

Here’s Why They’re Wrong. And what will it be? The Joint force is also a consumer of this data, provided by FVL’s manned or unmanned missions. Jen Judson 9 October Road to Future Vertical Lift: Defiant preps for first flight, Valor leaves the nest V vertical climb record First flight for the other prototype contra-rotating rotors slipped to , Aaron Mehta 12 December First flight for Defiant delayed to in part because the Army asked that this manufacturer try out automated fiber placement in the rotors, which need to be extremely rigid to minimize vibration.

The 2nd manufacturer’s prototype December attempts to first reach 15 hours of reliable ground performance resulted in fixes that affected its fit, form, and function; hence its first flight is expected in ; its First flight has occurred. Tischler, Christina M. Ivler, M. Hossein Mansur, Kenny K.

Retrieved 22 December Wins, U. Rapid capability development phase begins 1QFY Space News. Archived from the original on 21 May Retrieved 22 June What does that really mean?

The Warzone. Northrop Grumman. Archived from the original on 14 November — via YouTube. David P. IBCS did send the correct commands. David Goldfein and Gen. Freeberg, Jr. A molten salt reactor is a possibility. Pine is investigator for ARO, using colloids of microscopic spheres which can assemble bottom-up into promising structures. Mingxin He, Johnathon P.

A new design isn’t needed. This includes recycling old computers, cell phones, printers, and displays. Your participation in recycling means fewer one-use products, cleaner water, and cleaner air. But recycling may someday pay off financially too. Imagine a future where the garbage collector drops off a check for your contributions to going green.

People People are surely the most important part of any information system. Our lives are touched every day by computers and information systems. Many times the contact is direct and obvious, such as when we create documents using a word processing program or when we connect to the Internet.

Other times, the contact is not as obvious. Throughout this book you will find a variety of features designed to help you become an efficient and effective end user. We all can benefit from a few tips or suggestions. Throughout this book you will find numerous tips to make your computing safer, more efficient, and more effective.

These tips range from the basics of keeping your computer system running smoothly to how to protect your privacy while surfing the web. One of the most critical issues today is how to protect the privacy of our personal information. Throughout this book you will find Privacy boxes in the margin that present information about protecting our privacy. Today it is more important than ever that we be aware of our impact on the environment.

Most people agree that we should behave ethically. That is, we should follow a system of moral principles that direct our everyday lives. However, for any given circumstance, people often do not agree on the ethics of the situation. Perhaps you are planning to be a writer, an artist, or an engineer. Or you might become a professional in information technology IT. Each of the following chapters highlights a specific career in information technology. This feature provides job descriptions, projected employment demands, educational requirements, current salary ranges, and advancement opportunities.

Software Software, as we mentioned, is another name for programs. Programs are the instructions that tell the computer how to process data into the form you want.

In most cases, the words software and programs are interchangeable. There are two major kinds of software: system software and application software.

You can think of application software as the kind you use. System Software The user interacts primarily with application software. System software enables the application software to interact with the computer hardware.

System software is not a single program. Smartphones, tablets, and many other mobile devices use embedded operating systems, also known as realtime operating systems RTOS. Desktop computers use stand-alone operating systems like Windows 10 or macOS. See Figures and Networks use network operating systems NOS.

One of the most essential utility programs that every computer system should have is an antivirus program. These programs protect your computer system from viruses or malicious programs that are all too often deposited onto your computer from the Internet. If your computer does not have an antivirus program installed on it, you need to get one.

Three types of application software are general-purpose, specialized, and apps. General-purpose applications are widely used in nearly all career areas. They are the kinds of programs you have to know to be considered an efficient and effective end user. Some of the best known are presented in Figure Figure General-purpose applications Specialized applications include thousands of other programs that are more narrowly focused on specific disciplines and occupations.

Two of the best known are graphics and web authoring programs. Mobile apps, also known as mobile applications or simply apps, are small programs primarily designed for mobile devices such as smartphones and for tablets. There are over 5 million apps. The most popular mobile apps are for social networking, playing games, and downloading music and videos. Even worse, perhaps a malicious piece of software stole crucial, personal information or caused a total system failure.

This exercise shows you how to download and install a free antivirus program if your computer does not yet have one. Please note that the web is continually changing, and some of the specifics presented here may have changed. Getting Started First, make sure your computer does not have an antivirus or security suite running. If it does, be sure to completely uninstall that program, even if the subscription is expired. Run the installation file and follow the prompts.

Select Install Basic to install the antivirus software. Once the program is installed, it will open automatically. Using AVG Generally speaking, your antivirus program watches your system for malware and updates itself automatically. However, you can always download updates manually, set a schedule for full-system scans, and change basic settings for various components of the software. Just to the right of that, click the button with the white cog to see the scan options, where you can set a schedule for automated scans.

Click the back arrow to reach the main screen, where you can click various elements of the program to configure them. For example, clicking Web will allow you to turn on a feature that detects cookies that may be used to track your online activity. Describe two types of system software programs. Define and compare general-purpose applications, specialized applications, and mobile apps.

Hardware Computers are electronic devices that can follow instructions to accept input, process that input, and produce information. This book focuses principally on personal computers. However, it is almost certain that you will come in contact, at least indirectly, with other types of computers. Types of Computers There are four types of computers: supercomputers, mainframe computers, midrange computers, and personal computers.

These machines are special, high-capacity computers used by very large organizations. Supercomputers are typically used to process massive amounts of data. For example, they are used to analyze and predict worldwide weather patterns. Although not nearly as powerful as supercomputers, mainframe computers are capable of great processing speeds and data storage.

For example, insurance companies use mainframes to process information about millions of policyholders. Originally used by medium-size companies or departments of large companies to support their processing needs, today midrange computers are most widely used to support or serve end users for such specific needs as retrieving data from a database or supplying access to application software. There are five types of personal computers: desktops, laptops, tablets, smartphones, and wearables.

Desktop computers are small enough to fit on top of or alongside a desk yet are too big to carry around. Tablets, also known as tablet computers, are smaller, lighter, and generally less powerful than laptops.

Like a laptop, tablets have a flat screen but typically do not have a standard keyboard. Instead, tablets typically use a virtual keyboard that appears on the screen and is touch-sensitive. Smartphones are the most widely used personal computer.

Smartphones are cell phones with wireless connections to the Internet and processing capabilities. At one time, cell phones had very limited power and were used almost exclusively for making telephone calls. Now, almost all cell phones are powerful smartphones capable of connecting to the Internet and running any number of apps. In fact, nearly every cell phone purchased today is more powerful than the computers used to land the first person on the moon.

Today, over 99 percent of Americans under the age of 30 own a cell phone, and over 96 percent of those cell phones are smartphones. As a result, the two terms are becoming interchangeable. Reflecting this trend, we will use the term cell phone and smartphone interchangeably. Personal Computer Hardware Hardware for a personal computer system consists of a variety of different devices. Because we discuss hardware in detail later in this book, here we will present just a quick overview of the four basic categories.

Two important components of the system unit are microprocessors and memory. The microprocessor controls and manipulates data to produce information. Memory is a holding area for data, instructions, and information. One type, random-access memory RAM , holds the program and data that are currently being processed. This type of memory is sometimes referred to as temporary storage because its contents will typically be lost if the electric power to the computer is disrupted.

The most common input devices are the keyboard and the mouse. Output devices translate the processed information from the computer into a form that humans can understand. The most common output device is the display, also known as a monitor. The most important kinds of secondary media are hard disks, solid-state storage, and optical discs.

Hard disks are typically used to store programs and very large data files. In contrast, solidstate storage does not have any moving parts, is more reliable, and requires less power. It saves data and information electronically similar to RAM except that it is not volatile. Optical discs use laser technology to store data and programs. Now, using communication devices, a personal computer routinely communicates with other computer systems located as near as the next office or as far away as halfway around the world, using the Internet.

A modem is a widely used communication device that modifies audio, video, and other types of data into a form that can be transmitted across the Internet. Describe the five types of personal computers. Describe the four basic categories of personal computer hardware. Data Data is raw, unprocessed facts, including text, numbers, images, and sounds.

As we mentioned earlier, processed data becomes information. When stored electronically in files, data can be used directly as input for the system unit. For example, a file might contain audience handouts, speaker notes, and electronic slides. Connectivity and the Mobile Internet Connectivity is the capability of your personal computer to share information with other computers.

Central to the concept of connectivity is the network. A network is a communications system connecting two or more computers.

The largest network in the world is the Internet. It is like a giant highway that connects you to millions of other people and organizations located throughout the world. The web provides a multimedia interface to the numerous resources available on the Internet. The Internet has driven the evolution of computers and their impact on our daily lives. The rate of technological change is accelerating at an ever faster pace.

Along with the Internet, three things that are driving the impact of technology on our lives are cloud computing, wireless communication, and the Internet of Things. Rather than relying solely on their computer, users can now use the Internet to connect to the cloud and access more powerful computers, software, and storage. The rapid development and widespread use of wireless communication devices like tablets, cell phones, and wearable devices have led many experts to predict that wireless applications are just the beginning of the wireless revolution, a revolution that will dramatically affect the way we communicate and use computer technology.

It promises to connect all types of devices, from computers to cell phones, to watches, to any number of everyday devices. Wireless communication, cloud computing, and IoT are driving the mobile Internet.

They promise to continue to dramatically affect the entire computer industry and how you and I will interact with computers and other devices. Each will be discussed in detail in the following chapters. For just a few of these mobile devices, see Figure List four common types of files. Define connectivity and networks. What is cloud computing?

Wireless revolution? Each provides specific job descriptions, salary ranges, advancement opportunities, and more. For a partial list of these careers, see Figure We want to help you become proficient and to provide you with a foundation of knowledge so that you can understand how technology is being used today and anticipate how technology will be used in the future.

This will enable you to benefit from six important information technology developments. The Internet and the Web The Internet and the web are considered to be the two most important technologies for the 21st century.

Understanding how to efficiently and effectively use the Internet to browse, communicate, and locate information is an essential skill. Powerful Software The software that is now available can do an extraordinary number of tasks and help you in an endless number of ways.

You can create professional-looking documents, analyze massive amounts of data, create dynamic multimedia web pages, and much more. General-purpose, specialized, and mobile applications are presented in Chapter 3.

System software is presented in Chapter 4. Powerful Hardware Personal computers are now much more powerful than they used to be. Cell phones, tablets, and communication technologies such as wireless networks are dramatically changing the ways to connect to other computers, networks, and the Internet. However, despite the rapid change of specific equipment, their essential features remain unchanged.

To become an efficient and effective end user, you should focus on these features. Chapters 5 through 8 explain what you need to know about hardware. This guide provides a very concise comparison of desktops, laptops, tablets, and cell phones. Privacy, Security, and Ethics What about people? Experts agree that we as a society must be careful about the potential of technology to negatively affect our lives.

Specifically, we need to be aware of how technology can affect our personal privacy and our environment. Also, we need to understand the role and the importance of organizational and personal ethics.

These critical issues are integrated in every chapter of this book as well as extensively covered in Chapter 9. Organizations Almost all organizations rely on the quality and flexibility of their information systems to stay competitive.

As a member or employee of an organization, you will undoubtedly be involved in these information systems. In order to use, develop, modify, and maintain these systems, you need to understand the basic concepts of information systems and know how to safely, efficiently, and effectively use computers.

These concepts are covered throughout this book. Almost everyone thinks so. Whatever the answer, it is clear we live in a fast-paced age. The Evolution of the Computer Age section presented at the end of this book tracks the major developments since computers were first introduced. After reading this book, you will be in a very favorable position compared with many other people in industry today.

You will learn not only the basics of hardware, software, connectivity, the Internet, and the web, but also the most current technology. You will be able to use these tools to your advantage. The purpose of information systems is to make people, or end users like you, more productive. They are typically documented in manuals written by computer professionals.

Information is data that has been processed by the computer. To efficiently and effectively use the computer, you need to understand information technology IT , including software, hardware, data, and connectivity. This book contains several features to demonstrate how people just like you use computers. Topics include using online office suites and cloud storage.

The impact of computers and other technologies is more critical today than ever before. To efficiently and effectively use computers, you need to understand the basic parts of an information system: people, procedures, software, hardware, data, and connectivity. You also need to understand the Internet and the web and to recognize the role of technology in your professional and personal life. System Software System software enables application software to interact with computer hardware.

Application Software Application software includes general-purpose, specialized, and mobile applications. Types of Computers Supercomputer, mainframe, midrange server , and personal computers PCs are four types of computers. Personal computers can be desktop, laptop notebook computer , tablet, smartphone, and wearable. Cell Phones Today, almost all cell phones are smartphones; cell phone and smartphone are becoming interchangeable terms.

Input devices include the keyboard and mouse. The most common output device is the computer display monitor. Modems modify audio, video, and other types of data for transmission across the Internet. DATA Data is the raw unprocessed facts about something. Central to the concept of connectivity is the network or communication system connecting two or more computers.

The web provides a multimedia interface to resources available on the Internet. Wireless devices include tablets, cell phones, and watches. The keyboard, mouse, display, and system unit are: a. Programs that coordinate computer resources, provide an interface, and run applications are known as: a.

A browser is an example of a: a. Although not as powerful as a supercomputer, this type of computer is capable of great processing speeds and data storage. RAM is a type of: a. Unlike memory, this type of storage holds data and programs even after electric power to the computer system has been turned off. RAM c. ROM d. The type of file created by word processors, for example, memos, term papers, and letters. The largest network in the world is [the]: a. Facebook b. Internet c. Write your answers in the spaces provided.

Consists of the step-by-step instructions that tell the computer how to do its work. Another name for a program. Enables the application software to interact with the computer hardware. Type of computer that is small enough to fit on top of or alongside a desk yet is too big to carry around.

A container that houses most of the electronic components that make up a computer system. Devices that translate the processed information from the computer into a form that humans can understand. Unlike hard disks, this type of storage does not have any moving parts, is more solid-state reliable, and requires less power. The most widely used communication device. A type of a file that might contain, for example, audience handouts, speaker notes, and software electronic slides.

A communications system connecting two or more computers. Explain the parts of an information system. What part do people play in this system? What is system software? What kinds of programs are included in system software? Define and compare general-purpose applications, specialized applications, and apps. Describe some different types of general-purpose applications.

Describe some types of specialized applications. Describe the different types of computers. What is the most common type? What are the types of personal computers? What is connectivity? What is a computer network?

What are the Internet and the web? What are cloud computing, the wireless revolution, and IoT? Making IT Work for You Making it a habit of keeping current with technology applications can be a key to your success. Numerous full-page spreads identified as Making IT Work for You are presented in the following chapters. They include online entertainment in Chapter 2, online office suites in Chapter 3, and cloud storage in Chapter 7.

Select one that you find the most interesting and then respond to the following: a Why did you select this application? If so, when and how? If not, do you plan to in the near future? Review and briefly describe its contents. Why or why not? Privacy Privacy is one of the most critical issues facing society today. Numerous Privacy boxes appear in the margins of the upcoming chapters presenting a variety of privacy issues.

These issues include apps that constantly track your movements without your knowledge or consent in Chapter 3; public Wi-Fi connections that record all of your personal communications in Chapter 8; and protection of personal privacy while using social networking sites such as Facebook in Chapter 9.

Select one that you find the most interesting, and then respond to the following: a Why did you select this issue? If so, describe your knowledge or experience. If not, do you consider the issue to be important for protecting your privacy?

Ethics Computer ethics are guidelines for the morally acceptable use of computers in our society. Numerous Ethics boxes appear in the margins of the upcoming chapters presenting a variety of ethical issues.

These issues include image editing in Chapter 3, unauthorized use of webcams in Chapter 6, and unauthorized monitoring or eavesdropping of Internet activity in Chapter 8. Select one issue that you find the most interesting and then respond to the following: a Why did you select this issue? If not, do you consider the issue critical for individuals or organizations? Environment Almost everyone agrees that protecting our environment today is more important than ever before.

Numerous Environment boxes appear in the margins of the upcoming chapters. These boxes present a variety of environmental topics, including digital media benefits in Chapter 2, operating systems reducing energy consumption in Chapter 4, and recycling old inkjet cartridges in Chapter 6.

Select one that you find the most interesting and then respond to the following: a Why did you select this topic? Learning Objectives After you have read this chapter, you should be able to: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Explain the origins of the Internet and the web. Explain how to access the web using providers and browsers. Compare different web utilities, including filters, file transfer utilities, and Internet security suites.

Compare different Internet communications, including social networking, blogs, microblogs, podcasts, wikis, text messaging, instant messaging, and e-mail.

Describe search tools, including search engines. Describe how to evaluate the accuracy of information presented on the web. Describe cloud computing, including the three-way interaction of clients, Internet, and service providers. Our cell phones, tablets, and computers connect us to the Internet, and there are even Internet-connected TVs, cars, and refrigerators.

What are the different ways we use the Internet? And how can we tap into the power of the Internet to improve our lives? The Internet is an interconnected mesh of computers and data lines that connects millions of people and organizations. It is the foundation of the digital revolution and allows people around the world to share words, images, and any digital file almost instantaneously.

The web provides an easy-to-use interface to Internet resources. It has become an everyday tool for all of us to use. To efficiently and effectively use computers, you need to be aware of the resources available on the Internet and the web.

Additionally, you need to know how to access these resources, to effectively communicate electronically, to efficiently locate information, to understand electronic commerce, and to use web utilities. The Internet is an immense network that connects together smaller networks all over the globe. Prior to the web, the Internet was all text—no graphics, animations, sound, or video. The web made it possible to include these elements. It provided a multimedia interface to resources available on the Internet.

Today the web is a collection of machines and people sharing amazing content, but not long ago it was a far simpler experience. The web has matured through three generations, commonly called Web 1. Google Search and other search engines made it possible for users to search the web to locate web pages of interest. However, to create a web page required a background in computers and programming.

Many users could view web content, but few users could create web content. Facebook and other social media sites made it so that nontechnical people could be seen and heard on the web. These sites allow almost anyone to post videos, images, and text about their lives. However, the massive amount of social media posts made it difficult to find truly valuable information. Many users could view and create web content, but few could readily locate valuable, timely information on the web.

Siri and Google Assistant are examples of Web 3. As this web technology grows out of its infancy, we can expect to get more personalized, helpful information from our devices. Figure Web 3. Futurists suggest that Web 4. However, there is not universal agreement regarding the specifics of Web 4. It is easy to get the Internet and the web confused, but they are not the same thing.

The Internet is the physical network. It is made up of wires, cables, satellites, and rules for exchanging information between computers connected to the network. Being connected to this network is often described as being online. The Internet connects millions of computers and resources throughout the world.

The web is a multimedia interface to the resources available on the Internet. Every day over a billion users from nearly every country in the world use the Internet and the web. What are they doing? The most common uses are the following: ethics Twitter and other social media organizations ban users who post hateful or violent content. Some people feel that Twitter has an ethical responsibility to monitor and remove offensive or inaccurate content. What do you think?

Who should decide what information is shared on Twitter: the company or the users? You can exchange texts, emails, photos, and videos with your family and friends from almost anywhere in the world. You can reconnect with old friends, meet new people with similar interests, and engage with special-interest communities around the world. You can look for the latest fashions, search for bargains, and make purchases.

You can take classes on almost any subject. There are courses just for fun, and there are courses for high school, college, and graduate school credit. Some cost nothing to take and others cost a lot. You can find the latest movies and news, listen your favorite songs, and play video games with friends around the world. The first step to using the Internet and the web is to get connected, or to gain access to the Internet.

Describe how the Internet and the web started. What are the four web generations? List and describe five of the most common uses of the Internet and the web.

How about listening to the largest catalog of music the world has ever known? Or to carry a library in your backpack? Want to keep up to date on the news your friends and family are reading? Or to hear about the latest trends in tech news? Online entertainment has got you covered, with entertainment options for TV, movies, music, books, social media, and news feeds. Paid subscription services, like Netflix, offer popular film and TV shows, as well as original content.

These services allow you to watch vast libraries of popular mainstream TV and movies as well as original content. Visit www. These sites offer live broadcasts of breaking news, sports, and popular TV show episodes.

Visit tv. Online Music—Websites Spotify and Pandora offer access to large music libraries, with everything from contemporary hits to classical music. They offer free versions with commercials or for a small monthly fee, you can get all the music you want with limited commercial interruptions.

Go to spotify. Online Books—Digital books allow you to download all your textbooks and store them on your laptop or read the latest best-seller off your tablet. Digital books can be purchased online and read on your digital devices. Go to amazon.

Social Media—Social media websites offer a way to connect and interact with others about news, movies, and everyday life. Thoughts and ideas are posted instantly with sites like Twitter, a popular platform for sharing short messages, videos, and photos. You can follow other Twitter users to get automatic updates on the posts they make, and others can follow you to keep up to date on your posts.

Twitter users include politicians, athletes, and artists. To join the conversation, go to twitter. A news feed application takes articles from news organizations, collects them according to your interest, and presents them like a newspaper—grouped by topic and in chronological order.

One of the best news feed services is Feedly. Go to feedly. Popular social media site Twitter updates your Twitter account with new postings from users around the world.

However, it needs to be connected to the Internet to truly unleash its power. Once on the Internet, your computer becomes an extension of what seems like a giant computer—a computer that branches all over the world.

When provided with a connection to the Internet, you can use a browser program to search the web. Here are a few suggestions to make you faster and more efficient.

Add your top 5 or 10 most-often-visited websites here. Shortcuts: Keyboard shortcuts are often faster than using a mouse. These programs can perform a variety of tasks, from providing easy access to your cloud services to making it easier to capture information on a web page. Configure Settings: All browsers have a settings or options page that provides ways to improve the security and privacy of your Internet browsing.

For example, you can deny websites from automatically opening up another browser window, called pop-ups these annoying windows often contain advertisements. The providers are already connected to the Internet and provide a path or connection for individuals to access the Internet.

As we will discuss in Chapter 8, users connect to ISPs using one of a variety of connection technologies including DSL, cable, and wireless modems. Browsers Today it is common to access the Internet from a variety of devices like cell phones, tablets, and laptops. These devices use programs called browsers to provide access to web resources.

These programs connect you to remote computers; open and transfer files; display text, images, and multimedia; and provide in one tool an uncomplicated interface to the Internet and web documents. For example, Chrome is a web browser designed by Google that has a mobile version for cell phones and tablets and a desktop version for laptops and desktops.

Mobile browsers are designed for the smaller touchscreens of mobile devices. Desktop browsers are designed for laptop and desktop computers, with smaller buttons and more on-screen options designed to take advantage of larger monitors and the precision of mouse input.

These addresses are called uniform resource locators URLs. All URLs have at least two basic parts. As we will discuss in Chapter 8, protocols are rules for exchanging data between computers. The protocol https is used for web traffic and is one of the most widely used Internet protocols.

It indicates the specific address where the resource is located. In Figure the domain is identified as www. The last part of the domain name following the dot. Also known as the web suffix, it typically identifies the type of organization. For example,. Figure Traditional top-level domains Once the browser has connected to the website, a document file is sent back to your computer. The browser interprets the HTML formatting instructions and displays the document as a web page.

For example, when your browser first connects to the Internet, it opens up to a web page specified in the browser settings. Various technologies are used to provide highly interactive and animated websites. The Microsoft search engine Bing. CSS help ensure that related web pages have a consistent presentation or look. Netflix uses CSS to visually connect all its web pages. What are a URL, a protocol, a domain name, and a web suffix? Web Utilities Utilities are programs that make computing easier.

Web utilities are specialized utility programs that make the Internet and the web easier and safer to use. Some of these utilities are browser-related programs that either become part of your browser or are executed from your browser, while others work as separate stand-alone applications. Common uses for web utilities include filtering content and transferring files.

Filters Filters block access to selected sites. The Internet is an interesting and multifaceted arena. But not all aspects of the Internet are appropriate for all audiences. Parents, in particular, are concerned about children roaming unrestricted across the Internet. Filter programs allow parents as well as organizations to block out selected sites and set time limits. Additionally, these programs can monitor use and generate reports detailing the total time spent on the Internet and the time spent at individual websites.

For a list of some of the bestknown filters, see Figure Figure Filters File Transfer Utilities Using file transfer utility software, you can copy files to your computer from specially configured servers. This is called downloading. You also can use file transfer utility software to copy files from your computer to another computer on the Internet. This is called uploading. This eliminates the need for any custom software to be installed.

A popular webbased file transfer service is Dropbox. A single file might be located on dozens of individual computers. When you download the file, each computer sends you a tiny piece of the larger file, making BitTorrent well suited for transferring very large files. Unfortunately, BitTorrent technology often has been used for distributing unauthorized copies of copyrighted music and video.

FTP has been used for decades and still remains one of the most popular methods of file transfer. Internet Security Suites An Internet security suite is a collection of utility programs designed to maintain your security and privacy while you are on the web. These programs control spam, protect against computer viruses, provide filters, and much more.

You could buy each program separately; however, the cost of the suite is typically much less. What are filters used for? What are file transfer utilities? Web-based file transfer services? Define Internet security suites. Communication As previously mentioned, communication is the most popular Internet activity, and its impact cannot be overestimated.

At a personal level, friends and family can stay in contact with one another even when separated by thousands of miles. At a business level, electronic communication has become a standard way to stay in touch with suppliers, employees, and customers.

Many national and local news organizations offer a digital version of their papers. Using the digital version instead of the paper version can deliver the news quickly, cheaply, and sustainably.

If you want to save a tree, use the digital version of your favorite newspaper or magazine. Social Networking Social networking is one of the fastest-growing and most significant Web 2. Social networking sites focus on connecting people and organizations that share a common interest or activity. These sites typically provide a wide array of tools that facilitate meeting, communicating, and sharing. These profiles often include photos, personal details, and contact information. These pages often include hours of operations, upcoming sales, and information about their products.

Groups are typically organized around topics, events, or ideas. They are popular among clubs and organizations to coordinate activities or share information. The most common options include sharing with everyone, just your friends, or just a subset of your friends.

Unless you are careful, you could be starring in one of those videos. Without privacy settings, images and videos posted to these sites can be viewed and potentially reposted for all to see. If a social networking friend were to post an embarrassing video of you to Facebook, would all your friends be able to see it? What about parents, teachers, or potential employers? To check your Facebook privacy settings, go to Facebook and click on the security lock icon.

A social network often has an overall focus. For example, LinkedIn is a popular businessoriented social networking site. The profiles on LinkedIn share professional information, like resumes and job successes, and the corporate pages concentrate on sharing their corporate culture and promoting job openings. By contrast, the largest social networking site, Facebook, originally had a focus of connecting friends and family. For many, Facebook is much more than a way to keep connected with friends and family.

It has expanded to include news sites, entertainment sites, and a powerful way for businesses and organizations to connect with their audience. There are many social networking sites, each with its own unique features and interactions. For a list of some of the most popular sites, see Figure These communication alternatives offer greater flexibility and security; however, they are often more complex to set up and maintain.

Many individuals create personal websites, called blogs, to keep in touch with friends and family. Blog postings are time-stamped and arranged with the newest item first. Often, readers of these sites are allowed to comment.

Some blogs are like online diaries with personal information; others focus on information about a hobby or theme, such as knitting, electronic devices, or good books.

Although most are written by individual bloggers, there are also group blogs with multiple contributors. Some businesses and newspapers also have started blogging as a quick publishing method. Several sites provide tools to create blogs. Two of the most widely used are Blogger and WordPress. Much like a blog, a microblog allows an individual or company to share posts with an audience. However, microblogs are designed to be used with mobile devices and limit the size of posts.

For example, Twitter, one of the most popular microblogging sites, limits posts, also known as tweets, to characters. Instagram, another popular microblogging site, is designed to share images and videos posts, with little to no written content.

For example, Taylor Swift has over 83 million followers on Twitter. Podcasts are audio programs delivered over the Internet.

Typically, a podcast is one audio program in a series of related podcasts. For example, The Science of Happiness podcast offers a series of episodes presenting tips for a happier life. Podcasts vary widely, from daily news to arts and comedy shows. For a list of popular podcasts, see Figure Perhaps the most famous example is Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia, written and edited by anyone who wants to contribute, that has millions of entries in over 20 languages.

Creating blogs and wikis are examples of web authoring. We will discuss web authoring software in detail in Chapter 3. News feeds?

Share settings? What are blogs? What is a wiki? What is Wikipedia? Messaging Electronic messaging is a popular way to communicate quickly and efficiently with friends, family, and co-workers. This form of communication is particularly common on cell phones, where messages are short and informal, and instantaneous responses are the standard. The two most widely used forms of electronic messaging are text and instant messaging. Today, billions of people send text messages every day.

It has become one of the most widely used ways to send very short messages from one individual to another. Although popular and convenient, there are downsides to using this technology in the wrong context. A great deal of attention has been directed toward texting while driving. A study by Car and Driver concluded that texting while driving had a greater negative impact on driver safety than being drunk.

Several states have passed laws prohibiting texting while driving. Whenever you connect to the Internet, your IM service is notified. It then notifies your friends who are available to chat and notifies your friends who are online that you are available. You can then send messages directly back and forth. Most instant messaging programs also include video conferencing features, file sharing, and remote assistance. Many businesses routinely use these instant messaging features.

E-mail exchanges tend to take longer to write and are more carefully crafted than text message exchanges, which make them ideal for business communications and newsletters. A typical e-mail message has four basic elements: header, message, signature, and attachment.

The e-mail message in Figure is to [email protected] , copied to [email protected] , and sent from [email protected] E-mail addresses have two basic parts. The server providing e-mail service for the recipient is usc. The top-level domain indicates that the provider is an educational institution. Subject lines typically are displayed when a person checks his or her mailbox.

Figure Two parts of an e-mail address The letter or message comes next. Following the message, the signature identifies the sender. Many e-mail programs allow you to include files such as documents and images as attachments. If a message has an attachment, the file name typically appears at the end of the e-mail. There are two basic types of e-mail systems: client-based and web-based. Before you can begin e-mailing, you need to run the e-mail client from your computer, which communicates with the e-mail service provider.

This is known as webmail. Most Internet service providers offer webmail services. For individual use, webmail is more widely used because it frees the user from installing and maintaining an e-mail client on every computer used to access e-mail. With webmail, you can access your e-mail from any computer anywhere that has Internet access. Here are a few spamreducing suggestions: Keep a low profile. Many spammers collect e-mail addresses from personal web pages, social networking sites, and message boards.

Be cautious when posting your address. Use caution when giving out your address. Many companies collect and sell e-mail addresses to spammers. Be sure to read the privacy policy of a site before providing your address. Many are a trick to validate active e-mail addresses.

These addresses are worth more to spammers, who then sell the addresses to other spammers. Use antispam and filter options. Most e-mail programs and web-based e-mail services have antispam and filter options that can be configured. Use them. E-mail can be a valuable asset in your personal and professional life. However, like many other valuable technologies, there are drawbacks too. Americans receive billions of unwanted and unsolicited e-mails every year.

This unwelcome mail is called spam. Although spam is indeed a distraction and nuisance, it also can be dangerous. For example, computer viruses or destructive programs are often attached to unsolicited e-mail. Computer viruses will be discussed in Chapter4. In an attempt to control spam, antispam laws have been added to our legal system.

Failure to do so results in heavy fines. This approach, however, has had minimal impact since over 80 percent of all spam originates from servers outside the United States. A more effective approach to controlling spam has been the development and use of spam blockers, also known as spam filters.

Most e-mail programs provide spam-blocking capabilities. Define e-mail header, address, subject, message, signature, and attachment. What are the two types of e-mail systems? What are viruses, spam, spam blockers, and spam filters? Search Tools The web can be an incredible resource, providing information on nearly any topic imaginable.

Are you interested in music? Writing a paper on the environment? Looking for a movie review? Trying to locate a long-lost friend? Information sources related to these questions, and much, much more, are available on the web. With over 20 billion pages and more being added daily, the web is a massive collection of interrelated pages.


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